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Review of Cool Fusion by David Nagel

November 2011

It is good to have the book Cool Fusion. Earlier, I read articles about the authors' experiments in Infinite Energy. Now, it is really nice to have the entire body of work in one well-organized document.

By way of background, especially for those who missed the articles in this magazine, Quantum Rabbit LLC (QR) was founded in 2005 by Edward Esko and Alex Jack. They are two educators and independent researchers living in the Berkshires in western Massachusetts. Their purpose is to continue the experimental LENR work of Louis Kervran, George Ohsawa and Michio Kushi.

Between 2005 and 2009, QR conducted over 25 experiments on LENR at small laboratories in Nashua, New Hampshire, Owls Head, Maine and Bellows Falls, Vermont. At the laboratory in Bellows Falls, QR studied open-air carbon- arc based on the experiments by Ohsawa and Kushi in the mid-1960s. Esko and Jack confirmed the results of the two earlier researchers. They reported the creation of magnetic graphitic powder, plus the anomalous appearance of other elements after the experiment: silicon at up to 10,500 ppm, magnesium at 1800 ppm, iron at 4700 ppm, aluminum at 7800 ppm, titanium at 440 ppm, cobalt at 160 ppm and nickel at 1120 ppm.

Vacuum discharge experiments were conducted at the laboratories in Nashua and Owls Head. Using highly simplified methods, QR reported the anomalous appearance of a variety of metals. The vacuum discharge results are summarized below (Source: Matthias Grabiak, "Was Transmutation Observed at Quantum Rabbit Laboratory?" IE #92):

Reaction Product (ppm) Where Setup
Fe + Li → Cu 1500 Anode Stainless electrodes with Li test substance
Zn + S → Pd 91 S residue Cu/Zn electrode with S test substance
Zn + O → Sr 14 Anode Cu/Zn electrode with S test substance
S + O → Cr 198 S residue Cu/Zn electrode with S test substance
Ag + Li → Sn 3 Li residue Cu/Ag electrodes with Li test substance
Cu + Li → Ge 2190 Cathode Cu electrodes with Li test substance
C + O → Si 138 Cathode Graphite electrodes with S test substance
Li + S → K 638 Anode Cu electrodes with Li/S test substance

Cool Fusion describes each of these experiments in considerable detail, with photos and illustrations showing design of vacuum tubes, electrode configurations and test substances. This book provides a description of how the QR project came into being. The book also presents the phenomenon of cool fusion in the context of ongoing research into both hot and cold fusion.

For years I have been grumping that much of the literature on transmutations does not include proper chemical analyses before and after experiments. The QR team is an exception. But, I would like to see the analytical data from all of their experiments presented in three-column tables. The first column would be the element, the second its starting concentration and the third the final concentration, with as many rows as needed to cover all the elements. Of course, the same analytical method would have to be used both before and after experiments.

Cool Fusion offers some comments on repeatability of experiments. However, it should be more quantitative, maybe giving the element-by-element enhancements for a series of experiments, one after the other, again in tabular form. There has been so much written on the reproducibility of heat measurements. The same concern applies to transmutation measurements. Proper analyses of many elements at low levels are expensive, and there is never enough money and time to do an exhaustive job. But, I favor doing fewer experiments more thoroughly rather than doing many less carefully.

Many LENR researchers doing a wide variety of experiments have been criticized for not repeating their work adequately. I feel that the same comment can be leveled at much of what is in Cool Fusion. It would be ideal if the QR scientists chose one of their many experiments and ran it, say, ten times, and reported the results for each run. The use of graphite to produce Si and other metals might be a good candidate, since very pure graphite is available.

I would like to see detailed time traces of voltage, current, power, temperature and light intensity (at various wavelengths) from the beginning to the end of these experiments. I know that obtaining them takes a lot of equipment (money) and effort. But they are really fundamental diagnostics. I spent a couple of decades as a spectroscopist, so I would like to see spectral data, which would provide both intensities and temperatures. Only in the table on page 101 is there any indication of the applied voltage and current.

The use of a template for each of the chapters in Cool Fusion, which report on various experiments, is very convenient and informative. It is easy to see what was done and found, even though I called for more details above. I also enjoyed the interesting historical summaries. One was the pioneering work of Norman Lockyer, the discoverer of helium, founder of Nature and experimentalist who reportedly converted copper into calcium in vacuum studies in 1878. Another treated Sir William Ramsay, who discovered neon, krypton and xenon, and won the Noble Prize for Chemistry. He reported in 1907 that he had transmuted copper into lithium. I knew much of what was written, but it is nice to have summaries of the bases for the recent work described in Cool Fusion.

I hope that the book will lead to more people picking up this line of research. It is an important contribution to the development of a new paradigm of the formation of elements.